Evaluation of Mechanical Methods used for the Enhancement of Dissolved Oxygen and Removal of Ammonia Toxicity from Intensive Shrimp Farming Wastewater

Nguyen Quang Lich, Martin S Kumar


Ammonia (NH3) is produced in shrimp culture wastewater and potentially toxic to aquatic animals especially in low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Therefore the enhancement of DO levels and NH3 toxicity removal is important in tertiary wastewater treatment and is necessary to bring NH3 to a safer level to achieve biological treatment of shrimp effluents. The performance of five mechanical treatment methods used in aquaculture including splash board, gutter, diffuse aerator system, paddlewheel and a porcupine-fan were evaluated in terms of their efficiency in the treatment of shrimp wastewater for enhancement of DO and removal of NH3 from shrimp farming wastewater. The experiments were conducted at the last month of the shrimp crop production cycle. Results indicated that these five treatment methods have potential in increasing DO and removing NH3 toxicity. However, among all instruments, the splash board method was found to be more efficient than the other treatment methods in terms of treatment performance and less energy requirement. Splash board produced the highest increase in DO (6.64 mg L‑1) and followed by gutter (4.65 mg L‑1) treatment within the six hours. The value of DO was comparatively lower in other methods such as porcupine-fan (3.91 mg L‑1) > paddlewheel (3.78 mg L‑1) > diffuse aerator system (3.2 mg L-1) and control (0.88 mg L-1) during the same period. Ammonia removal by splash board was up to 99.3% within six hours, followed in order by gutter (76.8%), porcupine-fan (63.6%), paddlewheel (55.0%) and diffuse aerator system (44.4%) while the NH3 levels increased in the control by up to 157.7% compared to the initial value.


dissolved oxygen, ammonia toxicity, shrimp effluent, wastewater treatment, intensive shrimp culture

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] Fig. 1. Five mechanical equipment’s design and a control used in the experiment (a. Splash board; b. Gutter; c. Diffuser aerator system; d. Paddlewheel; e. Porcupine-fan; f. Control).

] Fig. 2. (a) DO enhancement during 6 hours treatment and (b) rate of DO change per every hour in five treatment methods and control (SP: Splash board; GT: Gutter; DAS: Diffuse aerator system; PD: Paddlewheel; PF: Porcupine-fan; CT: Control).

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] Fig. 4. (a) NH3 removal during 6 hours treatment and (b) the rate of NH3 change in every hour in five treatment methods and control (SP: Splash board; GT: Gutter; DAS: Diffuse aerator system; PD: Paddlewheel; PF: Porcupine-fan; CT: Control).

] Fig. 5. Correlation of NH3 toxicity removal and DO enhancement in all treatment by five mechanical methods

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